The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) or sequential batch reactor is a fill-and-draw activated sludge system for wastewater treatment. SBR reactors treat waste water such as sewage or output from anaerobic digesters or mechanical biological treatment facilities in batches. Oxygen is bubbled through the waste water to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to make suitable for discharge into sewers or for use on land.
While there are several configurations of SBRs the basic process is similar. The installation consists of at least two identically equipped tanks with a common inlet, which can be switched between them. The tanks have a “flow through” system, with raw wastewater (influent) coming in at one end and treated water (effluent) flowing out the other. While one tank is in settle/decant mode the other is aerating and filling. At the inlet is a section of the tank known as the bio-selector. This consists of a series of walls or baffles which direct the flow either from side to side of the tank or under and over consecutive baffles. This helps to mix the incoming Influent and the returned activated sludge, beginning the biological digestion process before the liquor enters the main part of the tank.